The Mohawk was developed by Grumman
Aircraft as a photo observation and electronic reconnaissance airplane for the US Marines
and the US Army. Due to budgetary constraints, the Marines bowed out early in the
development cycle. The first Mohawk (YAO-1) prototype flew on April 14, 1959, and entered
production in October 1959. It served the US Army standing watch in Europe, Korea, the
Vietnam War, Central and South America, Alaska, and during Desert Shield/Desert Storm in
the Middle East. The US Army retired it from service in September 1996. A total of 380
original OV-1 Mohawks were produced. All types were built between 1957 and 1969.
Four basic models of the OV-1 were produced, not counting the prototype or
OV-1A This model was used for photo
observation and reconnaissance and employed a forward-looking panoramic camera; 64 were
OV-1B This model was used to conduct
electronic reconnaissance with a SLAR (side looking airborne radar) pod mounted under the
fuselage; 101 were built.
OV-1C This model provided electronic
reconnaissance by using an IR (infrared) imaging system; 133 were built.
OV-1D This model provided photo observation and
gathered electronic intelligence with SLAR and IR; 37 examples were built.
Following are variations or conversions of the original production models:
JOV-1A This model featured XM-14 .50 calibre gun pods and 7- or
19-round 2.75 inch rocket pods; 27 of these were adapted from OV-1As.
JOV-1C These gunships were the same as the JOV-1A but began as an
adapted short wing OV-1C with the IR gear removed.
OV-1 "Super C" These had an "A" fuselage,
"B" wings, T53-L15A engines, nose and belly cameras, and IR gear. All
"Super Cs" except the American Wings Air Museum's S/N 68-15936 which is pictured
in flight on the front page and those lost in accidents or in Vietnam were later converted
to "D" models.
OV-1 SEAMORE There were only a few
Hawks converted in the SEAMORE project.
ELINT (ELectronic INTelligence) version of
the OV-1D had all cameras, SLAR and IR gear removed and newer electronic surveillance
equipment installed. OV-1Bs were later converted to "D" models and RV-1Ds.
OV-1E This model was an OV-1D with a
"glass" cockpit. It was to be the next generation of Hawk with GPS (global
positioning system) integrated flight system, 704 engines at 1800 SHP (shaft horsepower),
new SLAR package, updated avionics, storm scope, with a corresponding gross weight
increase. Two or three prototypes were flown. (Sperry Honeywell donated an OV-1E cockpit
to the American Wings Air Museum.)
There were several one-of-a-kind Mohawks used in special applications by numerous
agencies.... included the following:
US Customs, US
Geological Survey, US Navy Test Pilot School, NASA, US Army EPG, Israel Air Force, and
Grumman Promotional #1092.